The debate rages on: one or two spaces after a period?

LawProfBlawg at Above the Law argues in defense of two spaces, linking it to a simpler, easier, pre-smartphone time: “I think the single spacing crowd is comprised of people who are always rushing someplace.”

Mignon Fogarty, Grammar Girl, prefers one space, and notes in Business Insider that most style guides, coding platforms, and typesetters do as well. “Everyone who makes the rules today agrees: It’s a one-space world.”

Another case of old man shouting at kids on his lawn?

Is this discourse simply an excuse for grammatical one-upmanship, or does that one extra space really make a difference?

Speaking in tongues

By Deborah Gaines
President, Deborah Gaines Associates

If you want a great name for something, ask a linguist. One of my favorite sites is Language Log, where the following terms are in daily use.

Autocorrect has been around long before the iPhone.

Snowclones. Variations on popular phrases. When Watson wiped the floor with the humans on Jeopardy, Ken Jennings snowcloned The Simpsons by cracking, “I, for one, welcome our new computer overlords.” Other examples include “I’m a doctor, not a _______” and “The _______ from hell.”

The Cupertino Effect occurs when computer spell checkers substitute the wrong word (and copy editors don’t catch it); it was coined by European journalists who kept replacing “cooperation” with “cooperatino.”

Crash Blossoms were named for a headline about a musician whose career prospered after her parents died: “Violinist Linked to Air Crash Blossoms.” They can be ambiguous (“Hanging Meat Causes Stir in South St. Louis”) or just plain hilarious (“Man Accused of Killing Lawyer Gets New Attorney”).

Mountweasel is the official name for the cartographer’s trick of including fake locations to protect map copyrights. When I start a band, I will name it The Mountweasels.

Finally, ace copy editor Carol Fisher Staller drew my attention to Shatner Commas, which she described as “oddly placed commas that don’t serve any actual purpose, but make it look like you should pause, as William Shatner does when delivering lines.”

Who, knew?

A matter of style

By Deborah Gaines
President, Deborah Gaines Associates

Every company needs a style guide. And everyone employed by the company needs to know about it.

As the name implies, a style guide is a compendium of rules for language usage at a particular organization. It can (and should) include everything from the correct spelling of the company name to guidelines for appropriate descriptions of minority group members.

It’s time to sit down and draw up that style guide.

I’ve worked at publications that create their own guides from scratch, sometimes running 200 pages or more. But most places do just fine with an existing style guide supplemented by a list of exceptions and words specific to the organization.

In the United States, the most popular guides are the Associated Press Stylebook, favored by journalists and other language-forward types, and the more traditional Chicago Manual of Style. If you write for an international audience, check out The Economist Style Book, which offers a handy section on Americanisms and has the added advantage of being free.

Whichever guide you choose, your company should have a frequently updated, regularly circulated list of addenda to make sure all employees—especially those responsible for external communications—are on the same page.  I’ve been called in to compile these lists, often after some publicly embarrassing incident, and I can tell you that employees desperately need them.

Black tie vs. business casual: decoding formality

By Deborah Gaines
President, Deborah Gaines Associates

I admit that I’m a writing snob, grammarian from hell, witch in the next cubicle—whatever you want to call it. But there are situations where formally correct writing isn’t necessary or even desirable.

Don’t pull an Elle Woods and show up to an email chain in inappropriate attire.

One example is when you’re talking exclusively to peers. The staff newsletter, written by employees for employees, will come off as stuffy if it refers to “Mr. Fuster’s performance on the field” at the company softball game. A group text to IT staffers under age 25 didn’t ruffle any feathers when it began, “resvd conf rm for the 3 pm.”

There are two rules to keep in mind when writing informally. First, be appropriate; that text would look ridiculous on a printed page. Second, err on the side of formality, especially if you have a tendency to “joke” using terms that could be considered offensive. A memo addressed to “Hos and Bros,” meant only for members of a tightly knit sales department, got a writer fired when someone forwarded it to the CEO.

The level of formality also varies according to industry. Publishing and entertainment companies tend to be casual (although publishing types are notorious sticklers about language), whereas law firms veer to the other extreme. So it might be appropriate to start a letter to a senior editor “Dear Leela” but address a junior associate as “Ms. Pandit.”

The following “informal” elements are often acceptable in business writing:

  • Abbreviations. Familiar abbreviations like “DVD,” “copy” and “fax” are not only acceptable but preferable—you’d sound pretentious if you spelled them out. On the other hand, recent terms like “btw” and “fyi” should be avoided except in texts or very informal e-mails. And as for LOL, BRB and the like—no.
  • Colloquialisms. Conventional wisdom holds that words like “kids” and “guys,” and sayings like “nail Jell-O to the wall,” should never be used in business writing. But if your document has a personal tone, and the terms are age-appropriate and not overly hackneyed, they’re fine.
  • Contractions. Used correctly, contractions like “I’m,” “won’t” and “they’re” have all but replaced full words, even in formal documents. That said, if you’re not confident about your contractions, you’re better off spelling them out than risking an embarrassing error.
  • Em dashes. Once reserved for informal writing, these handy marks—expressing a thought within a thought—are now appropriate anywhere, in moderation.
  • Imperatives. As a rule, clarity is prized over old-school courtesy in correspondence with people you know. “Remember to visit our booth at the trade show” is better than “We hope you’ll remember….” Similarly, active voice has replaced passive voice in just about every situation. It’s fine to say, “I approved that yesterday” instead of “The document was approved yesterday.”
  • Second-person pronouns. The use of “one” or “the reader” instead of “you”—as in “One can hardly remember a time before cable television—” has gone the way of the Cave Bear except in charmingly retro publications like The New Yorker.

However, these elements are rarely if ever appropriate:

  • Profanity. Even if your recipient isn’t offended, work e-mail accounts are the property of the company and can be read by any authorized person. Why risk getting fired for the transitory pleasure of lobbing the f-bomb?
  • Slang. There’s a thin line between colloquial usage and slang: The first describes informal, relaxed language that could be used by anyone, while the second is specific to a region or ethnic/cultural group. Slang is easier to misunderstand and more likely to make you look bigoted and provincial.
  • TMI. Save the details of your personal life for drinks after work. Sharing them in business correspondence is highly unprofessional.

One last caveat: Informal writing does not give you a license to make errors. Though casual language is less pretentious and more appealing under the right circumstances, poor grammar or spelling just makes you look dumb. So edit your informal business writing just as carefully as your formal proposals, and, when in doubt, keep things buttoned up.